Pengalaman Pasien Mengalami Serangan Jantung Pertama Kali yang dirawat di Ruang CICU

Didi Kurniawan, Kusman Ibrahim, Ayu Prawesti

Abstract


Serangan jantung merupakan peristiwa terhambatnya aliran darah pada arteri koroner yang menyebabkan otot jantung kekurangan oksigen sehingga terjadi kerusakan irreversibel miokard, reaksi tidak percaya, penolakan, marah, dan takut akan kematian. Serangan jantung pada pasien dapat berdampak pada aspek fisik dan psikologis pasien tersbut dan keluarganya. Staf pelayanan kesehatan termasuk perawat perlu lebih memahami perubahan yang terjadi sepanjang perjalanan hidup pasien yang mengalami serangan jantung pertama kali agar tercapai asuhan keperawatan holistik.
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif fenomenologis terhadap empat laki-laki dan tiga perempuan yang berusia antara 42–68 tahun melalui wawancara mendalam. Analisis hasil wawancara menggunakan metode Colaizzi.
Pengalaman hidup pasien yang mengalami serangan jantung pertama kali dikelompokkan ke dalam tiga tahapan. Tahap pertama yaitu sebelum serangan; situasi yang mencetuskan dan menyebabkan serangan jantung. Tahap kedua yaitu saat terjadi serangan jantung; nyeri dada seperti dihimpit beton, takut meninggal dunia, tidak percaya mengalami serangan jantung, pentingnya kehadiran keluarga saat serangan, dan putus asa mencari pelayanan kesehatan. Tahap ketiga yaitu selama perawatan; merasa sudah sembuh karena tidak nyeri dada lagi, pasrah dan berdoa serta menganggap sakit sebagai cobaan dari Tuhan, keinginan tetap beribadah meskipun sakit, kebahagiaan memeroleh kehidupan ke dua dari Tuhan, gangguan tidur selama perawatan, dan kesulitan pembayaran biaya rumah sakit.
Penelitian menemukan wawasan baru yaitu putus asa mencari pelayanan kesehatan, merasa sudah sembuh karena tidak nyeri dada lagi, dan kebahagiaan memeroleh kesempatan hidup kedua dari Tuhan. Berdasarkan hasil temuan maka perlu membuat sistem pertolongan yang cepat pada korban serangan jantung,  meningkatkan pemahaman pasien melalui pendidikan kesehatan mengenai serangan jantung yang dialami sehingga tercapai pelayanan yang paripurna.

Kata kunci: Koroner, pengalaman, serangan jantung pertama.



Life Experiences of First-Time Heart Attack Patients
who are Hospitalised in CICU


Abstract

A heart attack is an inhibition of blood flow in the coronary arteries that causes oxygen deficiency to the heart muscles, causing irreversible myocardial damage as well as disbelief, denial, anger, and fear of death in patients. A heart attack affects the physical and psyhological aspects of the patient and their family. This situation requires doctors and nurses to better understand the changes in the lives of patients who have their first heart attack in order to reach holistic nursing care. This study uses qualitative method with phenomenological approach. Data was collected by in-depth interviews with 4 men and 3 women between the age of 42 to 68. Data were analyzed with Colaizzi method. Life experiences of patients who have their first heart attack are categorised into 3 phases. The first phase is before heart attack occurs, i.e. circumstances that triggered heart attack. The second phase is when heart attack occurs, e.g. chest pain as if being squeezed by a piece of concrete, fear of death, disbelief, the importance of family during the attack, and desperately seeking medical services. The third phase is during treatment, e.g. feeling better because chest pain has subsided, resignation, praying, considering pain as a test from God, the intention to keep practicing religion in spite of being sick, feeling relieved and happy to receive a second chance from God, sleep disorder during treatment, and difficulty to pay hospital costs.
This study discovered new forms of life experiences, including desperately seeking medical care, feeling better because chest pain has subsided, and feeling happy to receive a second chance from God. The findings of this study suggest the need for timely medical response for people having a heart attack, increased involvement of family during the treatment of early heart attack, visits from clergy and improved understanding of patients through health education, in order to develop an excellent medical service.

Key words: Heart attack, life experience, phenomenology.

Full Text:

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v3i2.102

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v3i2.102.g98

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