Pengaruh Terapi Self-Help Groupterhadap Koping Keluarga dengan Anak Retardasi Mental

Titin Sutini, Budi Anna Keliat, Dewi Gayatri

Abstract


Keluarga dengan anak retardasi mental di Kabupaten Sumedang sekitar 10.898 orang dari 1.089.889 penduduk di
Kabupaten Sumedang, dan yang tercatat di SLB-C se-Kabupaten Sumedang hanya 218 orang. Tujuan penelitian
ini adalah untuk memperoleh gambaran tentang pengaruh pelaksanaan terapi self-help groupterhadap koping
keluarga dengan anak retardasi mental di SLB-C Kabupaten Sumedang tahun 2009 sehingga dapat mengurangi
faktor risiko terjadinya gangguan. Metode penelitian menggunakan quasi experimental pre-post test with control
groupdengan intervensi self-help group. Cara pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik purposive sampling
dengan sampel sebanyak 22 keluarga. Alat pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner karekteristik keluarga
dan kuesioner koping keluarga. Self-help group dilakukan pada dua kelompok, yaitu: kelompok I diberikan self-help groupdengan enam kali pertemuan (empat kali bimbingan dan dua kali mandiri) dan kelompok II tidak
diberikan self-help group.Analisis data menggunakan univariat dengan menganalisis secara deskriptif dengan
menghitung distribusi frekuensi dan tendensi sentral. Analisis bivariat menggunakan independent sample t-test,
chi-square dan dependent sample t-test. Analisis multivariat menggunakan pearson product moment dan rank
spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kemampuan koping setelah self-help group
pada keluarga dengan anak retardasi mental secara bermakna dan terjadi perubahan dari koping maladaptive
menjadi adaptive(nilai p=0.000). Pada kelompok yang hanya diberikan terapi generalis terjadi juga peningkatan
kemampuan koping keluarga dengan anak retardasi mental, tetapi peningkatan tersebut masih berada di koping
maladaptive. Direkomendasikan untuk membentuk kelompok self-help grouplainnya di lingkungan SLB-C.

Kata kunci: Koping keluarga, retardasi mental, self-help group

 

Abstract
Family with children having mental retardation at Sumedang district are almost 10,898 childrenof 1,089,889
population and they are only 218 children which recorded at SLB-C at Sumedang district. The purpose of this study
was to find descriptionof the effect of implementing self-help groups therapy toward coping family and children
with mental retardation at SLB-C Sumedang district in 2009 and expected to decrease the risk factor of disturbance
may occur. This study used quasi experimental pre-post test with control group by self help group intervention. The
methode to pick up samples was purposive sampling, getting samples by 22 families. Data were collected using
questionares of family characteristic and family coping. Self-help group has been done for two groups where the first
group was given self-help group for six times of meeting (four times for guiding and two times for standing alone),
while the second group was given self-help group. Data were analyzed using univariate method by calculating
frequency distribution and central tendency. Bivariate analysis used independent sample t-test, chi-square and
dependent sample t-test. Multivariate analysis used pearson product moment and rank spearman. Study result
indicated improvement the abilities of coping family and children with mental retardation as means (pvalue = 0.000).
It is recommended to build and implementing self-help group for family who had children with mental retardation.

Key words:Coping family, mental retardation, self-help group


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v2i2.74

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v2i2.74.g70

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