Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer


Vol. 10 No. 1 (2022): Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran

The Effect of Earmuff and Earplug Use on Preterm Infants Towards Oxygen Saturation and Pulse

November 20, 2021


Background: A bright circumstance, cold temperatures with loud noise andmany activities around can influence oxygen saturation and pulse in pretermbaby.Purpose: This study aimed to identify the effect of using earmuffs andearplugs on the physiological response of preterm infants.Methods: This crossover study involved 15 medically stable preterm infantstreated in a closed incubator. It used the consecutive sampling techniquewhere the babies’ physiological response using Neonatal Pulse Oximetri wasobserved for 30 seconds every 15 minutes for two hours of using earmuffsand earplugs.Results: The result of repeated ANOVA analysis showed that there is nosignifcant difference of pulse repetition frequency before, during, and afterusing the earmuff and earplug to preterm infants. Meanwhile, statistically,there was a difference in the mean of oxygen saturation during and afterusing the earmuff with p = 0.019.Conclusion: The use of ear protection (earmuff and earplug) could assistand support premature infants in maintaining physiological condition.Earplugs are considered better than earmuffs for maintaining a preterminfant’s physiological condition.

Article Matrics
Abstract views : 642 times PDF Downloads: 464


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Abdeyazdan, Z., Ghassemi, S., & Marofi, M. (2014). The effects of earmuff on physiologic and motor responses in premature infants admitted in neonatal intensive care unit. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 19(2), 107-112.
  2. Abou Turk, C., Williams, A. L., & Lasky, R. E. (2009). A randomized clinical trial evaluating silicone earplugs for very low birth weight newborns in intensive care. Journal of Perinatology, 29(5), 358-363.
  3. Almadhoob, A., & Ohlsson, A. (2020). Sound reduction management in the neonatal intensive care unit for preterm or very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2020(1).
  4. Altimier, L., Kenner, C., & Damus, K. (2015). The Wee Care Neuroprotective NICU Program (Wee Care): The Effect of a Comprehensive Developmental Care Training Program on Seven Neuroprotective Core Measures for Family-Centered Developmental Care of Premature Neonates. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 15(1), 6-16.
  5. Altuncu, E., Akman, I., Kulekci, S., Akdas, F., Bilgen, H., & Ozek, E. (2009). Noise levels in neonatal intensive care unit and use of sound absorbing panel in the isolette. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 73(7), 951-953.
  6. Beal, J. (2006). Sound level exposure of high-risk infants in different environmental conditions. MCN The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 31(5), 338.
  7. Care, N. I., Intensive, N., & Nursing, C. (n.d.). Care Nursing.
  8. Chen, H. L., Chen, C. H., Wu, C. C., Huang, H. J., Wang, T. M., & Hsu, C. C. (2009). The Influence of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Design on Sound Level. Pediatrics and Neonatology, 50(6), 270-274.
  9. Duran, R., Çiftdemir, N. A., Özbek, Ãœ. V., BerberoÄlu, U., DurankuÅŸ, F., Süt, N., & AcunaÅŸ, B. (2012). The effects of noise reduction by earmuffs on the physiologic and behavioral responses in very low birth weight preterm infants. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 76(10), 1490-1493.
  10. Hassanein, S. M. A., El Raggal, N. M., & Shalaby, A. A. (2013). Neonatal nursery noise: Practice-based learning and improvement. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 26(4), 392-395.
  11. Indonesia, U., Syahreni, E., Magister, P., Keperawatan, I., Anak, K. K., Keperawatan, F. I., & Indonesia, U. (2010). Pengaruh Pengaturan Stimulus Sensoris.
  12. Indonesia, U., Utario, Y., Keperawatan, F. I., Studi, P., & Keperawatan, M. (2017). Universitas indonesia.
  13. Joshi, G., & Tada, N. (2017). Effect of noise intensity on vital parameters of newborns in a tertiary care hospital. Sri Lanka Journalof Child Health, 46(1), 66-69.
  14. Pediatr, J. (2015). Erratum: Alterations in Brain Structure and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Preterm Infants Hospitalized in Different Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Environments (Journal of Pediatrics (2014) 164 (52-60). Journal of Pediatrics, 166(4), 1097.
  15. Rubel, E. W., & Fritzsch, B. (2002). Auditory system development: Primary auditory neurons and their targets. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 25, 51-101.
  16. Tiara Dewi, Muhammad Amir Masruhim, R. S. (2016). 済無No Title No Title No Title. In Laboratorium Penelitian dan Pengembangan FARMAKA TROPIS Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Mualawarman, Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur (Issue April).
  17. Wachman, E. M., & Lahav, A. (2011). The effects of noise on preterm infants in the NICU. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 96(4), 305-310.