Hubungan Karekteristik Perawat pada Program Preceptorshipterhadap Proses Adaptasi Perawat Baru

Sr Sofia Gusnia, Nurmaida Saragih

Abstract


Perawat baru adalah perawat yang memasuki pengalaman baru yang sebelumnya tidak dialami. Transisi shock
muncul sebagai pengalaman dari peran yang sudah dikenal yaitu sebagai mahasiswa ke peran yang belum
dialami yaitu sebagai perawat pelaksana profesional. Program pembimbingan perawat baru sangat penting
untuk mempercepat proses adaptasi. Program preceptorshipadalah pendekatan efektif dalam pengajaran
klinik, merupakan bagian integral dari orientasi perawat baru. Angka turnoverperawat baru tiga tahun terakhir
(2007–2009) di RS A adalah antara 37%–59%, di RS B dalam tiga tahun ini (2008–2010) adalah antara
2,6%–14,7%. Di RS C dalam dua tahun ini (2009–2010) adalah antara 14,6%–27%. Penelitian ini bertujuan
mengetahui hubungan program preceptorship dan karekteristik perawat dengan proses adaptasi perawat baru.
Desain penelitian deskriptif korelasi dengan pendekatan potong lintang. Sampel penelitian 100 perawat baru.
Instrumen digunakan adalah kuesioner. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel karekteristik perawat
yang meliputi lama kerja (p=0.004), konflik (p=0.000), strategi koping (p=0.003), self efficacy(p=0.000), dan
program preceptorship(p=0.002) berhubungan dengan proses adaptasi. Faktor dominan yang berhubungan
dengan proses adaptasi adalah self efficacydengan nilai odds ratio(OR) 6,68. Program preceptorshipdan
karekteristik perawat self efficacy(p=0.000), konflik (p=0.003), dan lama kerja (p= 0.003) berhubungan
dengan proses adaptasi perawat baru. Manajer keperawatan perlu menyediakan preceptoryang kompeten
yang menjadi role modeluntuk meningkatkan self efficacyperawat baru sehingga membantu proses adaptasi.

Kata kunci: Karekteristik perawat, program preceptorship, proses adaptasi

 

Abstract
Novice nurse is a nurse who have a new experience that had not previously experienced. Transition shock’ experience
emerged cause of changing role from the well-known role as a student into the unfamiliar role as professional nurses.
Preceptorship program for the novice nurse is very important to speed up the process of adaptation. Preceptorship
program is an effective approach in clinical teaching and an integral part of the orientation for novice nurses.
Turnover rate of novice nurses in last 3 years (2007–009) in the Hospital A is between 37%–59%, in Hospital B
in 3 years (2008–2010) is among 2.6%–14.7%. While in the Hospital C within 2 years (2009–2010) is among the
14, 6%–27%. The research aims to determine the correlation of preceptorship programs and the characteristics of
nurses with the adaptation process of novice nurses. The study design used a descriptive correlation with the cross-sectional approach. The samples were 100 novice nurses. The instrument used was a questionnaire. The results show
that the variables of nurses’ characteristics which includes length of working (p=0.004), conflict (p=0.000), coping
strategies (p=0.003), self-efficacy (p=0.000) and preceptorship program (p=0.002) are correlated with the process
of adaptation. Dominant factor related to the adaptation process is self-efficacy with the OR 6.68. Preceptorship
programs and the characteristics of nurses self efficacy (p=0.000), conflict (p=0.003), and length of working (p=
0.003) correlated with the process of adaptation of the novice nurses. Nursing managers need to provide a competent
preceptor who be able to become a role model for improving self efficacy of novice nurses to assist their adaptation.

Key words:Nurse characteristics, preceptorship program, process of adaptation


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v1i1.47
Abstract view : 371     PDF Downloads : 32

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v1i1.47.g44

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