Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital : a Systematic Review

Iyus Yosep, Zabidah Putit, Helmy Hazmi, Henny Suzana Mediani

Abstract


Shortage of nurses and declining interest in becoming a mental health nurse are often attributed to workplace
distress and violence. These have become global issues and believed that shortage of nurses decreases the quality
of health care services. It leads distress among nurses, which is exposure to violence and traumatic experiences.
In addition, nurses are also accused of seizing the rights of patients and committing violence against a patient.
This paper focuses on the violence that occurred in mental health nurses during working in unpredictable
situation. A literature search of systematic review through the CINAHL, Medline, Google scholars and PsycInfo
databases, the empirical report using a nursing sample includes data on rates of violence exposure including
violence, aggressive behavior, bullying, and sexual harassment. The result, a total of 400 articles provide data
on 2742 publications indicates near all of nurses in mental health experienced verbal abuse in the past month,
furthermore, most of respondents’ ever experienced psychological abuse, and less of respondents experienced
physical violence and sexual harassment. Rates of exposure vary by world region (Developed countries, Asia,
Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the USA,
Australia, United Kingdom, New Zealand region, and the highest rates of psychological violence and bullying
in the Middle East. The presence of violence signals an "alarm" that violence against nurses calls for special
attention in many countries. Essentially, the world must give a "priority" to handling violence against nurses.


Keywords


Violence, mental health nurses, shortage.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alegría, L., Margarita, P.L., Antonio, G.L.,

Shan, S.L., Luz, R.L., Dan, J.L., ..., Normand,

L.S. (2008). Evaluation of a patient activation

and empowerment intervention in mental

health care. Medical Care, 46(3), 247-56.

Allen, M.L., Cook, B.L., Carson, N.,

Interian, A., La Roche, M., & Alegria, M.

(2015). Patient-provider therapeutic alliance

contributes to patient activation in community

mental health clinics. Adm Policy Ment Health.

Angland, S., Dowling, M., & Casey, D. (2014).

Nurses’ perceptions of the factors which cause

violence and aggression in the emergency

department: A qualitative study. International

emergency nursing, 22(3), 134-9.

Araujo, S., & Sofield, L. (2011). Workplace

violence in nursing today. Nursing Clinics of

North America, 46(4), 457-64.

Barnett, T., Namasivayam, P., & Narudin, D.

A. A. (2010). A critical review of the nursing

shortage in Malaysia. International nursing

review, 57(1), 32–39.

Birnbaum, R. (2012). Remembering the

"Right to Treatment"'. The American Journal

of Psychiatry, 169(4), 358-9.

Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., & Solomon, Z.

(2003). Exposure to terrorism, stress-related

mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors

among a nationally representative sample in

Israel. Jama, 290(5), 612-20.

Brown, B.G., & Burns, C. (2013). Hospital

violence and the role of the occupational

health nurse. Workplace Health Saf, 61(11),

-8.

Bucci, S., Birchwood, M., Twist, L., Tarrier, N.,

Emsley, R., & Haddock, G. (2013). Predicting

compliance with command hallucinations:

Anger, impulsivity and appraisals of voices'

power and intent. Schizophrenia research,

(1), 163-8.

Chan, Z.C., Tam, W.S., Lung, M.K., Wong,

W.Y., & Chau, C.W. (2013). A systematic

literature review of nurse shortage and

the intention to leave. Journal of Nursing

Management, 21(4), 605-13.

Chang, H.-Y., Shyu, Y.-I.L., Wong, M.-K.,

Friesner, D., Chu, T.-L., & Teng, C.-I. (2015).

Which aspects of professional commitment

can effectively retain nurses in the nursing

profession? (Report) (Author abstract).

Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 47(5).

Chao, P., Steffen, J., & Heiby, E. (2012). The

effects of working alliance and client-clinician

ethnic match on recovery status. Community

Mental Health Journal, 48(1), 91-7.

Cleary, M., Hunt, G.E., Horsfall, J., & Deacon,

M. (2012). Nurse-patient interaction in acute

adult inpatient mental health units: A review

and synthesis of qualitative studies, 33(2), 66-

Cortes, D.E., Mulvaney-Day, N., Fortuna, L.,

Reinfeld, S., & Alegría, M. (2009). Patient -

provider communication. Health Education &

Behavior, 36(1).

Doyle, M., Carter, S., Shaw, J., & Dolan,

M. (2012). Predicting community violence

from patients discharged from acute mental

health units in England. Social psychiatry and

psychiatric epidemiology, 47(4), 627-37.

Dudgeon, A., & Evanson, T.A. (2014).

Intimate partner violence in rural U.S. areas:

What every nurse should know. Am J Nurs,

(5), 26–35.

Duvall, J.J., & Andrews, D.R. (2010). Using

a structured review of the literature to identify

Iyus Yosep : Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital

JKP-Volume 4 Nomor 3 Desember 2016 301

key factors associated with the current nursing

shortage. Journal of Professional Nursing,

(5), 309-17.

Embree, J.L., Bruner, D.A., & White, A.

(2013). Raising the level of awareness of

nurse-to-nurse lateral violence in a critical

access hospital. Nurs Res Pract, 2013, 207306.

Embree, J.L., & White, A.H. (2010). Concept

analysis: Nurse-to-nurse lateral violence. Nurs

Forum, 45(3), 166-73.

Fakhr, Movahedi, A., Salsali, M.,

Negharandeh, R., & Rahnavard, Z. (2011).

A qualitative content analysis of nurse–

patient communication in Iranian nursing.

International nursing review, 58(2), 171-80.

Garrosa, E., Moreno-Jiménez, B., RodríguezMuñoz, A., & Rodríguez-Carvajal, R. (2011).

Role stress and personal resources in nursing:

A cross-sectional study of burnout and

engagement. International Journal of Nursing

Studies, 48(4), 479-89.

HaciogluYildirim, M., Yildirim, E.A.,

Kaser, M., Guduk, M., Fistikci, N., Cinar,

O., & Yuksel, S. (2014). The relationship

between adulthood traumatic experiences and

psychotic symptoms in female patients with

schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry,

(8), 1847-54.

Hegarty, K., Taft, A., James-Hanman, D.,

Johnson, M., & Feder, G. (2015). Interventions

for intimate partner violence. The Lancet,

(9963), 111–112.

Hooper, C., Craig, J., Janvrin, D.R., Wetsel,

M.A., & Reimels, E. (2010). Compassion

satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue

among emergency nurses compared with

nurses in other selected inpatient specialties.

Journal of Emergency Nursing, 36(5), 420-7.

Horan, W.P., & Blanchard, J.J. (2003).

Emotional responses to psychosocial stress

in schizophrenia: The role of individual

differences in affective traits and coping.

Schizophrenia research, 60(2), 271-83.

Ilkiw-Lavalle, O., & Grenyer, B.F. (2014).

Differences between patient and staff

perceptions of aggression in mental health

units. Psychiatric Services.

Jack, S. M., Ford-Gilboe, M., Wathen, C.

N., Davidov, D. M., McNaughton, D. B.,

Coben, J. H., ... & MacMillan, H. L. (2012).

Development of a nurse home visitation

intervention for intimate partner violence.

BMC health services research, 12(1), 1.

Jalbrzikowski, M., Sugar, C.A., Zinberg, J.,

Bachman, P., Cannon, T.D., & Bearden, C.E.

(2014). Coping styles of individuals at clinical

high risk for developing psychosis. Early

intervention in psychiatry, 8(1), 68-76.

Jourdain, G., & Chênevert, D. (2010). Job

demands–resources, burnout and intention to

leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire

survey. International Journal of Nursing

Studies, 47(6), 709-22.

Juraschek, S.P., Zhang, X., Ranganathan, V.,

& Lin, V.W. (2012). United States registered

nurse workforce report card and shortage

forecast. American Journal of Medical

Quality, 27(3), 241-9.

Kamchuchat, C., Chongsuvivatwong, V.,

Oncheunjit, S., Yip, T.W., & Sangthong, R.

(2008). Workplace violence directed at nursing

staff at a general hospital in southern Thailand.

Journal of occupational health, 50(2), 201-7.

Lawn, S., Mcmillan, J., Comley, Z., Smith, A.,

& Brayley, J. (2014). Mental health recovery

and voting: Why being treated as a citizen

matters and how we can do it: Involuntary

patients’ right to vote. J PsychiatrMent Health

Nurs, 21(4), 289-95.

Lee, S., Pai, H.C., & Yen, W.J. (2010).

Nurse violence in the workplace: a study of

experiences and related factors in Taiwan. Hu

Li ZaZhi, 57(2), 61-9.

Lee, S.Y., Kim, K.R., Park, J.Y., Park, J.S.,

Kim, B., Kang, J.I., Lee, E., An, S.K., &

Kwon, J.S. (2011). Coping strategies and their

relationship to psychopathologies in people

at ultra high-risk for psychosis and with

schizophrenia. The Journal of nervous and

Iyus Yosep : Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital

JKP-Volume 4 Nomor 3 Desember 2016

mental disease, 199(2) 106-10.

Lidz, C. W., & Appelbaum, P. S. (2014).

Therapeutic misconception in clinical trials:

fighting against it and living with it. Revista

clínica española: publicación oficial de la

Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna,

(8), 457–458.

Lützén, K., Blom, T., Ewalds-Kvist, B., &

Winch, S. (2010). Moral stress, moral climate

and moral sensitivity among psychiatric

professionals. Nursing Ethics, 17(2), 213-24.

Lyndon, A., Zlatnik, M.G., & Wachter,

R.M. (2011). Effective physician-nurse

communication: A patient safety essential

for labor and delivery. American journal of

obstetrics and gynecology, 205(2), 91-6.

Manojlovich, M. (2010). Nurse/ physician

communication through a sense making lens:

Shifting the paradigm to improve patient

safety. Medical care, 48(11), 941-6.

Mcmenamin, P. (2013). Average staff nurse

wages increase but below the rate of inflation.

Georgia Nursing, 73(4), 7.

Mcvicker, L. (2010). Killer will remain locked

up: Judge rules mental patient still poses a

danger. McClatchy - Tribune Business News.

Mejdoubi, J., van den Heijkant, S.C., van

Leerdam, F.J., Heymans, M.W., Hirasing,

R.A., & Crijnen, A.A. (2013). Effect of nurse

home visits vs. usual care on reducing intimate

partner violence in young high-risk pregnant

women: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS

One, 8(10), e78185.

Misdrahi, D., Verdoux, H., Lançon, C., &

Bayle, F. (2009). The 4-point ordinal alliance

self-report: A self-report questionnaire for

assessing therapeutic relationships in routine

mental health. Comprehensive Psychiatry,

(2), 181-5.

Morgan, C., & Fisher, H. (2007). Environment

and schizophrenia: Environmental factors in

schizophrenia: Childhood trauma - A critical

review. Schizophrenia bulletin, 33(1), 3–10.

Muula, A.S., Mfutso-Bengo, J.M., Makoza,

J., & Chatipwa, E. (2003). The ethics of

developed nations recruiting nurses from

developing countries: The case of Malawi.

Nursing Ethics, 10(4), 433-8.

Nardi, D.A., & Gyurko, C.C. (2013). The

global nursing faculty shortage: Status and

solutions for change. Journal of Nursing

Scholarship, 45(3), 317-26.

O’Mahony, N. (2011). Nurse burnout and

the working environment: Nuria O’Mahony

asks whether greater teamwork and the

introduction of magnet hospitals can reduce

stress and exhaustion among emergency

nurses. Emergency Nurse, 19(5), 30-7.

Ohr, S.O., Parker, V., Jeong, S., & Joyce, T.

(2010). Migration of nurses in Australia:

Where and why?. Australian journal of

primary health, 16(1), 17–24.

Podubinski, T., Lee, S., Hollander, Y.,

& Daffern, M. (2015). Evaluating the

relationship between childhood abuse and

neglect, interpersonal hostile-dominance, and

aggression in psychiatric hospitals. Journal of

Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24(9),

-1001.

Purpora, C., & Blegen, M.A. (2015). Job

satisfaction and horizontal violence in hospital

staff registered nurses: The mediating role

of peer relationships. Journal of Clinical

Nursing, 24(15–16), 2286-94.

Read, J., Os, J.v., Morrison, A., & Ross,

C.A. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis

and schizophrenia: A literature review with

theoretical and clinical implications. Acta

Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112(5), 330-50.

Read, J., Perry, B.D., Moskowitz, A., &

Connolly, J. (2001). The contribution of early

traumatic events to schizophrenia in some

patients: A traumagenic neuro developmental

model. Psychiatry, 64(4) 319-45.

Roche, M., Diers, D., Duffield, C., & Catling,

Paull, C. (2010b). Violence toward nurses,

the work environment, and patient outcomes.

Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 42(1), 13-22.

Iyus Yosep : Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital

JKP-Volume 4 Nomor 3 Desember 2016 303

Routson, J.L., & Hinton, S.T. (2010). Domestic

violence and the role of the parish nurse. J

Christ Nurs, 27(4), 302-5.

Scott, C. L., & Resnick, P. J. (2013). Evaluating

Psychotic Patients' Risk of Violence: A

Practical Guide: Investigate Persecutory

Delusions and Command Hallucinations.

Current Psychiatry, 12(5), 28.

Schultze, S. (2008). Patient assaults fall, report

finds: Mental health complex changes pay

off; union says danger persists. McClatchy -

Tribune Business News.

Shacklock, K., & Brunetto, Y. (2012). The

intention to continue nursing: Work variables

affecting three.

Sharkey, V. (2012). Uniform approach: Mental

health nurse uniforms create a barrier and are

a leap back in time, a The NMC’s Judith Ellis

Valerie Sharkey. Nursing Standard, 26(45),

-7.

Simões, S., Espirito-Santo, H., Jesus, M., &

Marques, M. (2014). EPA-1621 – Traumatic

and dissociative experiences in a sample of

portuguese patients with schizophrenia and

bipolar disorder, vol. 29.

Smith, C.D., Fisher, C., & Mercer, A. (2011).

Rediscovering nursing: A study of overseas

nurses working in Western Australia. Nursing

& health sciences, 13(3), 289-95.

Sofield, L., & Salmond, S.W. (2003).

Workplace violence: A focus on verbal

abuse and intent to leave the organization.

(Orthopaedic Essentials). Orthopaedic

Nursing, 22(4).

Spector, P.E., Zhou, Z.E., & Che, X.X. (2014).

Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical

violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: A

quantitative review. Int J Nurs Stud, 51(1),

–84.

Speroni, K.G., Fitch, T., Dawson, E., Dugan,

L., & Atherton, M. (2014). Incidence and cost

of nurse workplace violence perpetrated by

hospital patients or patient visitors. Journal of

Emergency Nursing, 40(3), 218-28.

Spetz, J., & Given, R. (2003). The future of

the nurse shortage: Will wage increases close

the gap?. Health Affairs, 22(6), 199–206.

Spiers, J., & Wood, A. (2010). Building a

therapeutic alliance in brief therapy: The

experience of community mental health

nurses. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,

(6), 373-86.

Swanson, J., Swartz, M., Estroff, S.,

Borum, R., Wagner, R., & Hiday, V. (1998).

Psychiatric impairment, social contact, and

violent behavior: Evidence from a study of

outpatient-committed persons with severe

mental disorder. Social Psychiatry and

Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33(1), S86-S94.

Swartz, M.S., Swanson, J.W., Hiday, V.A.,

Borum, R., Wagner, H.R., & Burns, B.J.

(2014). Violence and severe mental illness: The

effects of substance abuse and nonadherence

to medication. American journal of psychiatry.

Tingle, J. (2015). The urgent need to improve

care for people with mental ill health. British

Journal of Nursing, 24(13), 710-1.

Valenti, E., Banks, C., Calcedo-Barba, A.,

Bensimon, C., Hoffmann, K.M., Pelto-Piri,

V., ..., Priebe, S. (2015). Informal coercion in

psychiatry: A focus group study of attitudes

and experiences of mental health professionals

in ten countries. The International Journal for

Research in Social and Genetic Epidemiology

and Mental Health Services, 50(8).

Van der Kolk, B.A., & McFarlane, A.C.

(2012). Traumatic stress: The effects of

overwhelming experience on mind, body, and

society. Guilford Press.

Vessey, J.A., DeMarco, R., & DiFazio, R.

(2010). Bullying, harassment, and horizontal

violence in the nursing workforce the state

of the science. Annual review of nursing

research, 28(1), 133-57.

Whittington, R. (2002). Attitudes toward

patient aggression amongst mental health

nurses in the ‘zero tolerance’era: Associations

with burnout and length of experience. Journal

of clinical nursing, 11(6), 819-25.

Iyus Yosep : Exposure of Mental Health Nurses to Violence in Mental Hospital

JKP-Volume 4 Nomor 3 Desember 2016

Williams, R. (2008). Mental health patient

accused of stabbing woman 17 times: Man

remanded on charge of attempted murder

victim of random attack at seaside store out

of danger. (Guardian Home Pages). The

Guardian (London, England).

Xie, Z., Wang, A., & Chen, B. (2011). Nurse

burnout and its association with occupational

stress in a cross sectional study in Shanghai.

Journal of advanced nursing, 67(7), 1537-46.

Yun, H., Jie, S., & Anli, J. (2010). Nursing

shortage in China: State, causes, and strategy.

Nursing outlook, 58(3), 122-8.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v4i3.292
Abstract view : 715     PDF Downloads : 32

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.24198/jkp.v4i3.292.g142

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c)



JKP is indexed on:

http://jkp.fkep.unpad.ac.id/public/site/images/admin/IPI5.pnghttp://jkp.fkep.unpad.ac.id/public/site/images/admin/isjd1.png

Jurnal Keperawatan padjadjaran


Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran
Jalan Raya Bandung-Sumedang Km. 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia 45363
WA: 085317736810

Tlp. 022-7795596 
Email: jkp.fkep@unpad.ac.id

Creative Commons License
JKP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License